Samarqand is one of the oldest cities of the world its age equals to ages of cities like Rome Athena, Babylon. Poets and historian of the past described it with beautiful words like "East's heaven garden", "World", "Priceless pearls of Eastern World", "Adornment of the World's countries", "Rome of East" etc. and it was not vain.
The natural wealth of Valley of Zarafshan River, where Samarqand took its beginning was praised in "Avesto's" holy poems.
In Greek springs of the middle of the first century B.C. Samarqand was mentioned as Maroqand, in medieval remains of the ancient Samarqand was named as Afrasiyab. The first written reminder about Samarqand City belongs to the 329 B.C., at that time it was seized by Alexander the Great's Greek Macedon army. In the first century of A.D. city fell under rule of great Kangyuy state.
In VI-VII centuries Samarqand was ruled by Ishixiy rulers who had close relations with Turk State. In the end of VII and beginning of VIII century there was Arab warriors.
In the spring of 1220 City was seized by Chingizkhan's army and ruined to the ancient bases of city.
In XIV century and in the middle of XV century in economic, political and cultural life Samarqand happened incredible developments. At that time Samarqand was known to the world as a capital of great empire, created by Temur which laid along from Volga River to Ganga River and from Tien Shan to Bosporus. Amir Temur wished to make Samarqand as a beautiful city. In his each campaign to India, Afghanistan, Persia, Syria, countries of Caucasus, Turkey he brought to Samarqand the most professional architects, jeweller and scientists. Temur was creator in his country. He backed painters, poets, scientists with rewards. Temurs this behaviour later passed to his grandchild Mirzo Ulugbek too, his scheme of stars, created five years centuries ago even now astonishes all worlds. Just during Timur's rule Samarqand reached its greatest development.
Rulers of the European Countries regarded the visiting this city as honour for themselves.
Samarqand is a legend city. Here every stone, ravine or water reservoirs like fairy -tale telling about the past, each district (guzars or mahallas) keeping its legends as its genealogical house. Sometimes any historical place or event which has value for each inhabitant of Samarqand covers with legends.
Modern Samarqand - according to the population, territory, industrial importance stay is in the second place after Tashkent in Uzbekistan and centre of the world's tourism. It is located on a hilly part of left coast of the middle stream of Zarafshan river.
Nature itself gave to Samarqand beautiful climate and pure water - it is located on heaven land of Uzbekistan.
Climate of Samarqand is continental - subtropical. Amount of non-cloudy day per year 155, sum of sunny hours 2916, average temperature of year +13,4, January -0, July +26. Absolute minimum -27, absolute maximum +45. Population 364,3 thousand people.
Main water resources of city Zarafshan River, Dargom, Siyob, Shaudar channels.