Tashkent it's a capital of Uzbekistan. City has long and rich history. The city appeared in B.C. era, according to ancient manuscripts. From that time, Tashkent has grown considerably and now on its territory there is a former city called Ming Urik, by the Salar canal. Remains of Ming Urik show that the city is of end of B.C period and beginning of A.D era. Manuscripts of Chinese diplomat, who facilitated development of firs Great Silk Road, are one of the first writings of that time.
Originally the city was called “Shi” and belonged to Kongyuy region. The evidence of this is found in different Chinese documents. But years later the city developed into a separate state. Next stage in the city history is ephtalites invasion. Ephtalites made it one of the most powerful states in Central Asia. From Chinese language, “Shi” translates as “stone”. “Shi” was not the only name of this city. According to Iranian sources, the city was called “Chach”
From 4th century of our era, the city passed through many military conflicts and in 550 it was conquered and became a part of Turkish Kaganate. A lot of Turkish people entered the state and settled there. When Turkish Kaganate stopped to exist, Chach returned to the supervision of local governors.
During 7-8th centuries, the city was settled by Sogdian and Turkish people. In the end, Kuteiba attacked the city and organized Caliphate in 713. During the same period, twenty castles and four cities joined Madinat-ash-Shash city that we now call Ming Urik.
The period from 7th to 8thcenturies, was the city’s best time. At that time Islam was not the main religion there. Majority of population followed Mukanna doctrine. Population couldn’t bear cruelty of governors at that time and organized rebellion. In response, rulers destroyed the city. After destruction, people were living in small groups and couldn’t gather together for a long time.
In 9-12th centuries the trade and production was good. There were also cultural developments. This time some historians call “Muslim Renaissance”.During this time the city name was first mentioned to be “Tashkent”. This name appeared in Beruni’s work. Makhmud Kashgari was a Turkish linguist who lived in 11th century and argued that “Tashkent” is a version of Turkish name “Binket”
In the beginning of 13th century, the city was destroyed second time. After Mukhammad Khorezmshah ordered to cut supply of water, people left Tashkent and Mongol-Tatar army could easily enter the city.
At the period of Emir Temur’s ruling, Tashkent transformed into rich, cultural city. A lot of buildings were built. Among them, fort Banokat was rebuilt and renamed into “Shohruhiya” When last descendants of Emir Temur were governing, Tashkent was controlled by rulers of Fergana, Bukhara or Samarkand.
Sheibani-Khan became the ruler of Tashkent in 1503. But the most significant cultural and economic developments were done during the time of Suyunij-Khodja-Sultan.
In 16thcentury were built a lot of buildings of non-military character. Some of them survived till our days. Nauruz Akhmed started his role as governor of Sheibanids’ region in 1554.He added Fergana to be a part of Sheibanids’ region, but was killed in Samarkand.
In 1582, after several previous failures, Abdulla-khan conquered Tashkent. Then there was a time of Ashtarkhanids starting from early 17th century.
Up to the beginning of 18th century Tashkent belong to Kazakh people, before in 1723 it was taken over by djungars. Djungars developed Djungar state and made Tashkent a good source of income. For the first time in the city’s history and in the history of the whole Central Asia, djungars recorded the number of houses.
In 1758, Tashkent was conquered once again, this time by Chinese people. Despite becoming a part of China and being under Chinese control, the city managed to sustain some level of independence. The city during that time consisted of four districts: Kukcha, Sheikhantaur, Sebzar and Beshagach. Each district had separate governors, called“khodjas”. It was so called “period of four governors”.
As it usually happens, governors of these districts ere fighting for territory and Yunus-Khodja finally became the ruler of all four districts. After victory, Yunus-Khodja started to strengthen defense and military power of the city. By his order Tashkent was surrounded by 8 meter high and 2 meter thick walls that were protected by artillery. There were eight entrances, all of them protected. The city started to produce its own money and issued its own policy. People supported the ruler, because he offered them peaceful life.
Unfortunately in 19th century Tashkent was conquered again and became a part of Kokand Khanate. Independence of Tashkent ended in XIX century due to its conquer by the Kokand Khanate. One more fort by the river Ankhor was built at that time. The fort was srrounded by walls and had a palace inside it.
In 1865 the city was forcefully joined Russian Empire. In 1867 Tashkent was declared to be a center of Turkestan. The city continued to develop. Construction took place in Eastern part of the city. Russian governor (tsar) sent to Tashkent people that were punished for misbehavior or more serious matters. At the beginning of 20th century, there were enough unhappy with the regime people to plan revolution. In 1918 Turkestan became autonomous republic and Tashkent became its capital. But it did not last long and in1924 Turkmenistan became Uzbek SSR. At the time of Uzbek SSR establishment a capital was Samarkand and some years later it became Tashkent.
Samarkand was established. In 1930 Tashkent became the capital city again.
In 1991 Uzbekistan announced independence.