Ancient settlement of Shashtepa: ruins of the former might



Ancient settlement of Shashtepa: ruins of the former might


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Many residents of Tashkent have long been accustomed to the fact, that there is a small ancient artifact called Shashtepa in their city, but not everyone knows what secrets this settlement hides, owing its name to a nearby hill.


Archaeologists, who held a detailed study of the hill in the middle of the twentieth century, found out that it was here that once a mighty fortress with a big city existed, which was surrounded by fortifications. Today it's hard to believe that once there was a large city. Modern buildings of Tashkent have significantly changed the local landscape.


The discovered city with a fortress included several socially significant buildings:

  • Fortress, whose height exceeded sixteen meters;
  • Almost two full-functioning settlements with developed infrastructure;
  • Religious buildings.


The cultural layer allowed drawing important conclusions about the life of the city


This place turned out to be generous in terms of ethnographic findings. Scientists manage to unearth many cultural layers, each of which led to the conclusion about the level of development of the city at different stages of its existence. It is believed that the depth of the investigated cultural layers today is almost twelve meters.


The oldest cultural layer was discovered almost on loess soils. Detailed study of it made it possible to conclude that it belonged to the settlement of the settled farming burgulyuk civilization. Today, there is no conclusive evidence, allowing to say that this culture could be met anywhere else in the territory of Tashkent.


The name of this cultural period derived from the most important archaeological discoveries made by scientists Alexei Terenozhnin. On one of the banks Burgulyuksay he found many archaeological artifacts related to this period:

  • A variety of tools;
  • Ring defensive wall - one of the first examples of the construction of fortifications on the territory of Tashkent. It is believed that the wall stood for more than two centuries, undergoing repeated restoration;
  • Military items;
  • The bones of different animals;
  • Remains of crops;
  • Dishes made of ceramic.


A detailed comparison of the Tashkent findings with those has allowed scientists to show that they belong to the same cultural community. Eventually, identical everyday objects were found on the banks of the river Djune. It is believed that this is where the natural conditions allowed residents of Tashkent to do a full-fledged farming. In those early years, the level of the local river only here enabled the residents to do without any problems convenient watering of gardens.


Features of housing and living conditions in the settlement


It is estimated that the first farmers of Tashkent lived in mud huts, where the walls were made of very light overlap. In practically every mud huts intended for the stay of only one family, a place to store reserves of food and hearth could be found. As a rule, residents used traditional dishes made of clay.


The residents themselves were engaged in a year-round production of the necessary utensils using the ready-made templates. for example, of knives, arrowheads and sickles were manufactured, using special molds made of stone. Locals used not only bronze, but also iron to make tools.


In the settlement they developed weaving as well. Fabrics of coarse wool or jute were produced here. Today, scientists cannot state with certainty if cotton fabric was used there.


Talking about the agricultural features of this region, it is worth noting that in high esteem here were soft wheat and barley. For processing of crops they used hoes, and for their collection - sickles, made of bronze. Then, the harvested grain was crushed and turned into flour using a grinder, made of stone.


In some parts of the settlement traces were discovered which indicate that some residents kept home animals:

  • Pigs;
  • Horses;
  • Donkeys;
  • Camels and so on.


The study of numerous written sources has made it possible to establish with certainty that in those years local residents actively used these animals as domestic helpers.


The time frame of the existence of the local culture


Many years of detailed study of the area allow today with confidence to say that the earliest stage of the existence of the settlement refers to the ninth century BC. The opening of the centers of farming culture in various regions of Central Asia belongs to this historical period.


The most striking feature of this culture is the extensive use of painted ceramics. As a rule, at that time ornaments of regular geometric shape of red color were used. This period continued almost till the 1st millennium AD.


Locals worshiped the natural elements, which fully reflected in the features of the relationship in this society.





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